Tag Archives: sha512sum

Backup and Restore your Ubuntu Linux Workstations

This is a mechanism I invented and I’ve been using for decades, to migrate or clone my Linux Desktops to other physical servers.

This script is focused on doing the job for Ubuntu but I was doing this already 30 years ago, for X Window as I was responsible of the Linux platform of a ISP (Internet Service Provider). So, it is compatible with any Linux Desktop or Server.

It has the advantage that is a very lightweight backup. You don’t need to backup /etc or /var as long as you install a new OS and restore the folders that you did backup. You can backup and restore Wine (Windows Emulator) programs completely and to/from VMs and Instances as well.

It’s based on user/s rather than machine.

And it does backup using the Timestamp, so you keep all the different version, modified over time. You can fusion the backups in the same folder if you prefer avoiding time versions and keep only the latest backup. If that’s your case, then replace s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW=”${s_PATH_BACKUP}${s_DATETIME}/” by s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW=”${s_PATH_BACKUP}” for instance. You can also add a folder for machine if you prefer it, for example if you use the same userid across several Desktops/Servers.

I offer you a much simplified version of my scripts, but they can highly serve your needs.

#!/usr/bin/env bash

# Author: Carles Mateo
# Last Update: 2022-10-23 10:48 Irish Time

# User we want to backup data for
# Target PATH for the Backups

s_DATE=$(date +"%Y-%m-%d")
s_DATETIME=$(date +"%Y-%m-%d-%H-%M-%S")


echo "Creating path $s_PATH_BACKUP and $s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW"
mkdir $s_PATH_BACKUP


# Version the PGP files
echo "Compressing the PGP files as ${s_PGP_FILE}"
zip -r ${s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW}${s_PGP_FILE} /home/${s_USER}/Desktop/PGP/*

# Copy to BCK folder, or ZFS or to an external drive Locally as defined in: s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW
echo "Copying Data to ${s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW}/Data"
rsync -a --exclude={} --acls --xattrs --owner --group --times --stats --human-readable --progress -z "/home/${s_USER}/Desktop/data/" "${s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW}data/"
rsync -a --exclude={'Desktop','Downloads','.local/share/Trash/','.local/lib/python2.7/','.local/lib/python3.6/','.local/lib/python3.8/','.local/lib/python3.10/','.cache/JetBrains/'} --acls --xattrs --owner --group --times --stats --human-readable --progress -z "/home/${s_USER}/" "${s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW}home/${s_USER}/"
rsync -a --exclude={} --acls --xattrs --owner --group --times --stats --human-readable --progress -z "/home/${s_USER}/Desktop/code/" "${s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW}code/"

echo "Showing backup dir ${s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW}"
ls -hal ${s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW}

df -h /

See how I exclude certain folders like the Desktop or Downloads with –exclude.

It relies on the very useful rsync program. It also relies on zip to compress entire folders (PGP Keys on the example).

If you use the second part, to compress Docker Images (Jenkins in this example), you will run it as sudo and you will need also gzip.

# continuation... sudo running required.

# Save Docker Images
echo "Saving Docker Jenkins /home/${s_USER}/Desktop/Docker_Images/${s_DOCKER_IMG_JENKINS_EXPORT}"
sudo docker save jenkins:base --output /home/${s_USER}/Desktop/Docker_Images/${s_DOCKER_IMG_JENKINS_EXPORT}
echo "Saving Docker Jenkins /home/${s_USER}/Desktop/Docker_Images/${s_DOCKER_IMG_JENKINS_BLUEOCEAN2_EXPORT}"
sudo docker save jenkins:base --output /home/${s_USER}/Desktop/Docker_Images/${s_DOCKER_IMG_JENKINS_BLUEOCEAN2_EXPORT}
echo "Setting permissions"
sudo chown ${s_USER}.${s_USER} /home/${s_USER}/Desktop/Docker_Images/${s_DOCKER_IMG_JENKINS_EXPORT}
sudo chown ${s_USER}.${s_USER} /home/${s_USER}/Desktop/Docker_Images/${s_DOCKER_IMG_JENKINS_BLUEOCEAN2_EXPORT}
echo "Compressing /home/${s_USER}/Desktop/Docker_Images/${s_DOCKER_IMG_JENKINS_EXPORT}"
gzip /home/${s_USER}/Desktop/Docker_Images/${s_DOCKER_IMG_JENKINS_EXPORT}
gzip /home/${s_USER}/Desktop/Docker_Images/${s_DOCKER_IMG_JENKINS_BLUEOCEAN2_EXPORT}

rsync -a --exclude={} --acls --xattrs --owner --group --times --stats --human-readable --progress -z "/home/${s_USER}/Desktop/Docker_Images/" "${s_PATH_BACKUP_NOW}Docker_Images/"

There is a final part, if you want to backup to a remote Server/s using ssh:

# continuation... to copy to a remote Server.


# Copy to the other Server
rsync -e "ssh -i $s_PATH_KEY" -a --exclude={} --acls --xattrs --owner --group --times --stats --human-readable --progress -z "/home/${s_USER}/Desktop/data/" ${s_PATH_REMOTE}

I recommend you to use the same methodology in all your Desktops, like for example, having a data/ folder in the Desktop for each user.

You can use Erasure Code to split the Backups in blocks and store a piece in different Cloud Providers.

Also you can store your Backups long-term, with services like Amazon Glacier.

Other ideas are storing certain files in git and in Hadoop HDFS.

If you want you can CRC your files before copying to another device or server.

You will use tools like: sha512sum or md5sum.

Extend existing Single ZFS disk with a mirror without losing the Data on the existing HDD

This is an answer that I did to a question in askubuntu.



I have one HDD formatted as single disc zfs system on my server. It looks like the following:

Now I want to convert this to a zfs mirror without formatting the original disk. Any ideas?

Result should be something like:



I reproduced your case in a VM and paste here step by step. :)

Note: First of all, please do a backup of your data. I added an empty new disk, so ZFS had no doubt what was the master drive. Although you should have no problem as the first drive already forms part of the pool, a backup is recommended.

Quick answer: You need the zpool attach command.


sudo zpool attach hdd0 existinghdd blankhdd

After, do:

zpool status

And you will see that a mirror has been created. Your data on the already existing drive will be keep, and will be replicated to the new one (Resilvered).

As ZFS only copys the actual information this process will take more or less depending on the amount of Data.

In my VM 300 GB were replicated in 3 seconds, while my experience with SAS and SATA drives, I was Resilvering 10 TB in less than 24 hours (for that I was using drives from 10TB to 14TB SAS) .

Now the long answer with everything I did in my Virtual Box VM:

lsblk --scsi

identify the two empty drives by:

ls /dev/disk/by-id/

Select one of them and create a pool like your: sudo zpool create hdd0 id_of_mydrive

See that pool /hdd0 has been created and mounted on root.

sudo zpool status sudo zpool list sudo ls -al /hdd0

Fill with some random data (or better copy files there) to generate a drive like data like you. I generated from random:

sudo dd id=/dev/urandom of=/hdd0/file.000 bs=1M count=100 status=progress
sudo dd id=/dev/urandom of=/hdd0/file.001 bs=1M count=100 status=progress
sudo dd id=/dev/urandom of=/hdd0/file.002 bs=1M count=100 status=progress

Then I got the checksum and saved to verify later.

sudo su
# Please note I continue as root
sha512sum file.000 > file.000.sha512
sha512sum file.001 > file.001.sha512
sha512sum file.002 > file.002.sha512

zpool list shows nearly 100GB of space.

zpool attach hdd0 id_of_mydrive id_of_the_drive_to_add

zpool status will show:

pool: hdd0
state: ONLINE
scan: resilvered 301M in 0 days 00:00:03 with 0 errors…

   NAME                            STATE   READ WRITE CKSUM   
       ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VBa8...   ONLINE     0     0     0
       ata-VBOX_HARDDISK_VB8c...   ONLINE     0     0     0

errors: No known data errors

I verified the checksums.

zpool list will return as well 99GB of space available, as two drives of 100GB are being used in mirror.

So as kaulex mentioned the format is: zpool attach

Where device is your previous vdev with data (the single hard drive with Data in the ZFS pool named ‘hdd0’).

As I did you want to use the Id of the device and not the name, so you will use the identifier in /dev/disk/by-id/ and not sdb, sdc… (Please note, adding /dev/ is not necessary). The reason to do not use device names like sdb, sdc, sdea, etc… is that those names may change why live is running or between reboots. The id never changes. In real systems, not Virtual Box, they may start by wwn or ata.